This course addresses the theoretical framework of trauma and trauma treatment from a culturally and philosophically diverse perspective. It seeks to provide information about why and how trauma and PTSD occur and how trauma treatment is affected by type of trauma experience, socioeconomic and cultural factors, individual personality and family functioning. Attention is focused on life span development and the meaning of trauma at different ages. Various types of trauma and trauma treatment are discussed from an individual, family, and socio/cultural perspective. The importance of understanding trauma and its relationship to grief and loss will be addressed. Coping and resiliency in surviving and recovering from trauma are explored, emphasizing the diversity of human response and focusing on the significance of social groups in integrating trauma. The formation and practice of rituals, and diversity in religious and spiritual experience as a component of coping with trauma will be discussed. Trauma treatments will be discussed, including treatment immediately after a trauma treatment and treatments occurring later, integrated treatments, and evidenced-based treatments.